The history of the Austin 1800


BMC ADO17 was the name used by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) for its range of cars produced from September 1964 to 1975 and sold initially under its Austin marque as the Austin 1800. Colloquially known as the "Landcrab", the car was also sold as Morris and Wolseley variants, and later as the Austin 2200. The 1800 was voted European Car of the Year for 1965. It proved a strong competitor in endurance rallying finishing second in the 1968 London-Sydney Marathon and achieved three of the top 20 positions competing the 1970 London to Mexico World Cup Rally.
It was developed at BMC as the large-car follow-up to the successful Mini and Austin 1100 under the ADO17 codename. Additional badge-engineered Morris 1800 and Wolseley 18/85 variants were launched, in 1966 and 1967, catering for BMC dealerships selling these marques, and their loyal customers.
The car was unconventional in its appearance in 1964, with its large glasshouse and spacious, minimalist interior including leather, wood, and chrome features plus an unusual instrument display with ribbon speedometer and green indicator light on the end of the indicator stalk. There was a chrome "umbrella handle" handbrake under the dashboard parcel shelf, and the two front seats met in the middle and could be used, on occasion, as a bench seat. Both Alec Issigonis and Pininfarina worked on its exterior. The technology "under the skin" was also unconventional and ahead of its time, including Hydrolastic suspension and an example of inertia-controlled brake proportioning, in the form of a valve which transferred braking force between front and rear axles as a function of sensed deceleration rather than as a function of fluid pressure. The bodyshell was exceptionally stiff, featuring greater structural rigidity than many modern cars up to the end of the century.
Progressive improvement was a feature of most cars in this period, but the number and nature of the changes affecting the early years of the Austin 1800 looked to some as though the car had been introduced without sufficient development work. A month after the 1800's launch, in December 1964, reclining front seats and the option of an arm rest in the middle of the back seat were added to the specification schedule. A month later, in January 1965, the final drive ratio reverted to the 3.88:1 value used in the prototype, from the 4.2:1 ratio applied at launch: this was described as a response to "oil-consumption problems": January 1965 also saw the indicator switch modified. At the same time, higher gearing and reduced valve clearances cut the published power output by 2 bhp but cured the "valve-crash" reported by some buyers when approaching top speed on one of Britain's recently constructed motorways. The manufacturer quietly replaced the "flexible, flat-section dipstick" which, it was said, had caused inattentive owners to overfill the sump after inserting the dipstick back to front so that the word "Oil" could not be seen on it. Subsequent modifications included changing, repositioning and re-angling, the handbrake in October 1965, removing the rear anti-roll bar and rearranging the rear suspension at the end of 1965, at the same time adjusting the steering to address a problem of tyre scuffing, and fitting stronger engine side covers in January 1966 along with modified engine-mounting rubbers which now were "resistant to de-bonding". February 1965 saw water shields fitted to the rear hubs and the car's steering rattle cured by the judicious fitting of a spacer, while the propensity of early cars to jump out of first and second gears was addressed by the fitting of a "synchronizer". Further improvements followed the launch of the Morris 1800 early in 1966. Gear cables were revamped to deal with "difficult engagement" of first and third gears in cold weather, and the seat mountings were adapted to increase rake in May 1966. The list continued.
In June 1967, without any fanfare of press releases, a modified version of the 1800 started turning up in domestic market show rooms with repositioned heater controls, a strip of 'walnut veneer' on the fascia and separate bucket seats replacing the former split bench seat at the front. Various other criticisms seem to have been quietly addressed at the same time, including the announcement of more highly geared steering which now needed only 3.75 rather than 4.2 turns between locks , although the actual modification had applied to cars produced since September 1966 (and, in the case of Australian cars, some time before that). This was also the point at which the car received a differently calibrated dipstick, giving rise to rumours that engine problems on some of the early models had resulted from nothing more complicated than the wrong calibration of the dipstick causing the cars to run with the wrong level of engine oil: the manufacturers insisted that the "recalibration" of the dipstick was one of several (unspecified) modifications, and urging owners not to use the new dipsticks with older engines.
In May 1968 a Mark II version was launched. This featured a cheaper and more conventional interior, revised front grilles and other trim, and for the Austin and Morris models the slim, horizontal rear lights were replaced by vertical "fin" lights which gave a family look along with the smaller ADO16 range. The Wolseley retained its unique rear lights. Other changes included a higher second gear and final drive ratio for the manual transmission, and conventional suspension bushes replaced the far superior roller bearings fitted to the Mark I. The compression ratio was increased and maximum power output boosted by 5 bhp to a claimed 86 bhp.
By 1970, a 97 bhp (72 kW) "S" model with twin SU HS6 carburetors, a 120 mph speedometer and sporty-looking badging was available.
Further, less dramatic modifications heralded a Mark III version in 1972. This had another change to the front grille (now a shared style for the Austin and Morris) and interior, including a conventional handbrake. At this point six cylinder versions were introduced - the Austin 2200, Morris 2200 and Wolseley Six. While 1800 versions of the Austin and Morris were continued, the Wolseley 18/85 was dropped.

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